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Archive - Jun 2, 2009

Insomniac Flies May Provide Clues to Human Sleep Disturbances

Scientists at the Washington University School of Medicine have created a line of fruit flies that sleeps for less than one tenth the time of normal fruit flies (one hour versus twelve hours). "Insomnia is a common and debilitating disorder that results in substantial impairments in a person's quality of life, reduces productivity, and increases the risk for psychiatric illness," said senior author Dr. Paul Shaw. "We think this model has clear potential to help us learn more about the causes of insomnia and someday develop ways to test for or treat them in the clinic." Earlier, Dr. Shaw’s lab had been the first to show that fruit flies enter a state of inactivity comparable to sleep. The researchers demonstrated that the flies have periods of inactivity during which greater stimulation is required to rouse them. Like humans, flies deprived of sleep one day will try to make up for it by sleeping more the next day. In the current work, the researchers created the line of “insomniac” flies by selective breeding of flies that naturally exhibited certain insomnia-like signs. These included difficulty in falling asleep under normal circumstances, and sleep that was often interrupted or fragmented. The researchers also used hyper-responsiveness to stimuli as a breeding guide. For example, if researchers turned on a light at night, insomniac flies woke and stayed up the rest of the night, while the healthy flies went back to sleep. The flies that stayed up were added to the breeding pool. Ultimately, this selective breeding resulted in a line of flies that sleeps for only one hour a day. This work will be published in the June 3 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. [Press release]

New Arenavirus Is Cause of Fatal Fever Outbreak in Africa

Using unbiased high-throughput pyrosequencing, scientists have identified a new arenavirus as the cause of a highly fatal hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Zambia and South Africa in late 2008. At that time, five cases of undiagnosed hemorrhagic fever were recognized in South Africa after air transfer of a critically ill individual from Zambia. The disease was fatal in four of the five cases, including the originally infected individual, the paramedic who attended the patient during air transfer, the nurse who attended the patient in the intensive care unit, and a member of the hospital staff who cleaned the room after the death of the patient. The fifth case, a nurse who attended the paramedic one day before barrier nursing procedures were implemented, received anti-viral treatment (ribavirin) and recovered. The new virus, called Lujo virus after the sites of the outbreaks (Lusaka, Zambia, and Johannesburg, South Africa) is the first new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from Africa identified in nearly four decades. The virus is distantly related to the Lassa virus, also an arenavirus. The Lujo virus was identified with 72 hours of the receipt of specimens. According to the authors, their findings will enable the development of specific reagents to further investigate the reservoir, geographic distribution, and unusual pathogenicity of the Lujo virus. In addition, their results confirm the utility of unbiased high-throughput pyrosequencing for pathogen discovery and public health. The report of this work was published on May 29 in PLoS Pathology. [Press release] [PLoS Pathology article]