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Archive - Feb 5, 2010

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HPV Vaccines May Reduce Wide Range of Genital Diseases

High-coverage human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations among adolescent and young women may result in a rapid reduction of genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, researchers report in a new study published online February 5 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Some of these genital abnormalities are precursors of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers. The study focused on 17,622 women enrolled in one of two randomized, placebo-controlled, efficacy trials for the HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine. All women underwent cervicovaginal sampling and Pap testing. In the group representing uninfected women, vaccination was up to 100% effective in reducing the risk of HPV16/18-related high-grade cervical, vulvar, and vaginal lesions and in reducing the risk of HPV6/11-related genital warts. In the group representing the general population, vaccination reduced the risk of any lesion, genital warts, Pap abnormalities, and definitive therapy, irrespective of HPV type. The reduction in risk was statistically significant. "Our results provide strong evidence to suggest that the ongoing HPV vaccination programs in adolescent girls and young women will result within a few years in a notable reduction of genital warts, cervical cytological abnormalities, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures related to precursor lesions in the cervix, vulva, and vagina," the authors wrote. "It is anticipated that these reductions will eventually translate into lower rates of cancer of the cervix, vulva, and vagina." [Press release] [JNCI abstract]

Artificial Pancreas System Shows Promise in Type 1 Diabetes

In a study in children and teenagers with type 1 diabetes, researchers have shown that using a first-generation artificial pancreas system overnight can lower the risk of low blood sugar emergencies while sleeping, and at the same time improve diabetes control. The closed-loop system combined commercially available blood glucose sensors and insulin pumps, controlled by a sophisticated computer program that determined insulin dosage based on blood glucose levels while participants slept. Maintaining recommended blood sugar levels overnight is a major issue for people with type 1 diabetes--and particularly for the families of children with diabetes--because of the possibility of blood glucose dropping dangerously low during sleep and going unnoticed, which can lead to seizures, coma, and in some cases be fatal. Notably, the study showed that the children and teenagers spent twice as much time during the night within targeted blood glucose levels when their diabetes was regulated with the artificial pancreas system than when they followed conventional "manual" therapy—and low blood sugars were minimized. "Without a doubt, the biggest worry for parents of kids with type 1 diabetes is that their child will have a low blood sugar emergency during the night, when they're hard to identify," said Dr. Aaron Kowalski, Assistant Vice President of Metabolic Control at the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) and Director of the JDRF Artificial Pancreas Project. "This study is proof of principle that diabetes in kids can be safely managed overnight with an artificial pancreas.