Two studies from the Mayo Clinic presented during the this year’s American Society of Nephrology's Annual Kidney Week (November 8-November 13, 2011) provide new information related to high blood pressure during pregnancy. In one study, Dr. Vesna Garovic and her team examined the potential of a test done mid-pregnancy to predict which women will later develop preeclampsia, a late-pregnancy disorder that is characterized by high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine and that affects 3% to 5% of pregnancies. Left untreated, preeclampsia can lead to serious -- even fatal -- complications for a pregnant woman and her baby. Among a group of 315 patients, 15 developed preeclampsia and 15 developed high blood pressure (but not preeclampsia) during pregnancy. All of the patients who developed preeclampsia tested positive in mid-pregnancy in a test that detects the shedding of certain kidney cells called podocytes in the urine. None of those with only high blood pressure tested positive, and none of 44 women with normal pregnancies tested positive. Therefore, this test is highly accurate for predicting preeclampsia, which could alert clinicians to take steps to safeguard against the condition. In another study, Dr. Garovic's team looked at the long-term health effects of high blood pressure during pregnancy. They identified female residents of Rochester, Minnesota, and the surrounding townships in Olmsted County who delivered between 1976 and 1982. The investigators divided the women into two groups -- those with high blood pressure during pregnancy and those without -- and followed them after they reached 40 years of age to monitor their heart and kidney health. A total of 6,051 mothers delivered between 1976 and1982, and 607 women had high blood pressure at the time while 5,444 did not.
For the past 100 years, the Haber-Bosch process has been used to convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is essential in the manufacture of fertilizer. Despite the longstanding reliability of the process, scientists have had little understanding of how it actually works. But now a team of chemists, led by Dr. Patrick Holland of the University of Rochester, has gained new insight into how the ammonia is formed. Their findings are published in the November 11, 2011 issue of Science. Dr. Holland calls nitrogen molecules "challenging." While they're abundant in the air around us, which makes them desirable for research and manufacturing, their strong triple bonds are difficult to break, making them highly unreactive. For the last century, the Haber-Bosch process has made use of an iron catalyst at extremely high pressures and high temperatures to break those bonds and produce ammonia, one drop at a time. The question of how this works, though, has not been answered to this day. "The Haber-Bosch process is efficient, but it is hard to understand because the reaction occurs only on a solid catalyst, which is difficult to study directly," said Dr. Holland. "That's why we attempted to break the nitrogen using soluble forms of iron." Dr. Holland and his team, which included Dr. Meghan Rodriguez and Dr. William Brennessel at the University of Rochester and Dr. Eckhard Bill of the Max Planck Institute for Bioinorganic Chemistry in Germany, succeeded in mimicking the process in solution. They discovered that an iron complex combined with potassium was capable of breaking the strong bonds between the nitrogen (N) atoms and forming a complex with an Fe3N2 core, which indicates that three iron (Fe) atoms work together in order to break the N-N bonds.
With an estimated 1.5 million species, fungi represent one of the largest branches of the Tree of Life. They have an enormous impact on human affairs and ecosystem functioning due to their diverse activities as decomposers and pathogens, and their partnership with host organisms for mutual benefit. To use fungi for the benefit of humankind, an accurate understanding of what exactly they do, how they function, and how they interact in natural and synthetic environments is required. Dr. Jason Stajich, an assistant professor of plant pathology and microbiology at the University of California, Riverside, is a member of an international research team that, in collaboration with the Joint Genome Institute of the U.S. Department of Energy, has embarked on a five-year project to sequence 1000 fungal genomes from across the Fungal Tree of Life. Called the "1000 Fungal Genomes" project, the research endeavor aims to bridge the gap in our understanding of fungal diversity and is one of 41 projects funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's 2012 Community Sequencing Program. The funding awards were announced on November 3, 2011 by the DOE. "The overall plan is to fill in gaps in the Fungal Tree of Life by sequencing at least two species from every known fungal family," said Dr. Stajich, a member of UCR's Institute for Integrative Genome Biology. "Once the data is compiled, the project scientists will make use of the data as a starting point for interpreting how these organisms change and use their environment to make a living." Dr. Stajich is co-leading the Fungal Genomes project with Dr. Joey Spatafora, a professor of botany and plant pathology at Oregon State University.
For some time now, artemisinin, derived from a Chinese herb, has been the most powerful treatment available against malaria. To avoid the malaria parasite becoming resistant, the World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommends combining artemisinin with another anti-malarial drug. But there are different formulations and derivatives, in different combinations, and with dosing schemes. Scientists from the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM) carried out a head-to-head comparison of four combination therapies in seven African countries. One combination appeared particularly promising for regions where the risk of re-infection is high. Malaria is caused by several related parasites, of which Plasmodium falciparum is the worst. The parasites have a complicated life cycle, partly in mosquitoes. When an infected mosquito bites a human, parasites are injected with the mosquito saliva into the blood, travel to the liver, where they change form, then infect red blood cells, where they further reproduce. After a few days (depending on the parasite species), the red blood cells burst to release a huge number of new parasites. These bursts cause intense fever, anaemia, and renal problems. Each year, approximately 800,000 people die of malaria. In recent years, the burden of malaria has declined substantially in several sub-Saharan African countries, due to large scale indoor residual spraying of insecticides, massive distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets, and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination treatments, ACTs for short. To treat patients with malaria, the WHO advises each region to choose an ACT based on the local level of resistance to non-artemisinin medicine in the combination. But data on that resistance are scarce.
Shanchol™, a new oral cholera vaccine developed through the International Vaccine Institute (IVI), an international organization established by the United Nations and based in Seoul, Korea, recently received prequalification from the World Health Organization (WHO). Developed for use in developing countries to protect against life-threatening cholera, Shanchol™ is ready to use in a single-dose vial and is administered orally, which facilitates its implementation in large-scale immunization programs. Shanchol™ is produced by Shantha Biotechnics – part of the Sanofi group - in India where the vaccine has been licensed and sold since 2009. "I am immensely pleased by the news that Shanchol™, a vaccine enabled by IVI, received WHO prequalification," said Dr. Christian Loucq, IVI's new Director General. "This stamp of approval shows that public-private partnerships - such as those among IVI, Vabiotech, Shantha, and Sanofi – are essential for successful vaccine development, particularly in developing vaccines against neglected diseases of the poor like cholera." Certification by WHO of Shanchol™ represents a major milestone as it indicates that the vaccine meets WHO standards of quality, safety, and efficacy, and allows the vaccine to be procured by UN agencies and other international organizations for use in countries around the world. It also accelerates international use of the vaccine because WHO prequalification eliminates the need for country-level market authorization in some countries, which can take years to obtain. WHO prequalification of Shanchol™ is the latest achievement in IVI's mission to develop and introduce innovative, safe, and effective vaccines to protect vulnerable populations in poor countries against deadly diseases including cholera.