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Archive - Dec 6, 2013

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Researchers May Have Discovered Causes for Disabling Meniere's Disease

Researchers at the University of Colorado School of Medicine may have determined what causes Meniere's disease and how to attack it. According to Carol Foster, M.D., from the department of otolaryngology and Robert Breeze, M.D., a neurosurgeon, there is a strong association between Meniere's disease and conditions involving temporary low blood flow in the brain such as migraine headaches. Meniere's disease affects approximately 3 to 5 million people in the United States. It is a disabling disorder resulting in repeated violent attacks of dizziness, ringing in the ear, and hearing loss that can last for hours and can ultimately cause permanent deafness in the affected ear. Up until now, the cause of the attacks has been unknown, with no theory fully explaining the many symptoms and signs of the disorder. "If our hypothesis is confirmed, treatment of vascular risk factors may allow control of symptoms and result in a decreased need for surgeries that destroy the balance function in order to control the spell" said Dr. Foster. "If attacks are controlled, the previously inevitable progression to severe hearing loss may be preventable in some cases." Dr. Foster explains that these attacks can be caused by a combination of two factors: 1) a malformation of the inner ear, endolymphatic hydrops (the inner ear dilated with fluid) and 2) risk factors for vascular disease in the brain, such as migraine, sleep apnea, smoking and atherosclerosis. The researchers propose that a fluid buildup in part of the inner ear, which is strongly associated with Meniere attacks, indicates the presence of a pressure-regulation problem that acts to cause mild, intermittent decreases of blood flow within the ear.

Hummingbird Metabolism Unique in Burning Glucose and Fructose Equally

Hummingbird metabolism is a marvel of evolutionary engineering. These tiny birds can power all of their energetic hovering flight by burning the sugar contained in the floral nectar of their diet. Now new research from the University of Toronto Scarborough (UTSC) shows these tiny birds are equally adept at burning both glucose and fructose, which are the individual components of sucrose; a unique trait other vertebrates cannot achieve. "Hummingbirds have an optimal fuel-use strategy that powers their high-energy lifestyle, maximizes fat storage, and minimizes unnecessary weight gain all at the same time," says Dr. Kenneth Welch, assistant professor of biological sciences at UTSC and an expert on hummingbirds. Dr. Welch and his graduate student Chris Chen, who is co-author of the research article, fed hummingbirds separate enriched solutions of glucose and fructose while collecting exhaled breath samples. The researchers found that the birds were able to switch from burning glucose to fructose with equal facility. "What's very surprising is that, unlike mammals such as humans, who can't rely on fructose to power much of their exercise metabolism, hummingbirds use it very well. In fact, they are very happy using it and can use it just as well as glucose," says Dr. Welch. Hummingbirds require an incredible amount of energy to flap their wings 50 times or more per second in order to maintain hovering flight. In fact, if a hummingbird were the size of a human, it would consume energy at a rate more than 10 times that of an Olympic marathon runner. They are able to accomplish this by burning only the most recently ingested sugar in their muscles while avoiding the energetic expenditure of first converting sugar into fat.