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Archive - Mar 4, 2013

Mysterious Disease and Queen Rejection Key Factors in Honey Bee Colony Deaths

A new long-term study of honey bee health has found that a little-understood disease that study authors are calling “idiopathic brood disease syndrome” (IBDS), which kills off bee larvae, is the largest risk factor for predicting the death of a bee colony. “Historically, we’ve seen symptoms similar to IBDS associated with viruses spread by large-scale infestations of parasitic mites,” says Dr. David Tarpy, an associate professor of entomology at North Carolina State University and co-author of a paper describing the study. “But now we’re seeing these symptoms – a high percentage of larvae deaths – in colonies that have relatively few of these mites. That suggests that IBDS is present even in colonies with low mite loads, which is not what we expected.” The study was conducted by researchers from NC State, the University of Maryland, Pennsylvania State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The study evaluated the health of 80 commercial colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in the eastern United States on an almost monthly basis over the course of 10 months – which is a full working “season” for commercial bee colonies. The goal of the study was to track changes in bee colony health and, for those colonies that died off, to determine what factors earlier in the year may have contributed to colony death. Fifty-six percent of the colonies died during the study. “We found that colonies affected by IBDS had a risk factor of 3.2,” says Dr. Dennis van Englesdorp of the University of Maryland, who was lead author on the paper. That means that colonies with IBDS were 3.2 times more likely to die than the other colonies over the course of the study. While the study found that IBDS was the greatest risk factor, a close runner-up was the occurrence of a so-called “queen event.” Honey bee colonies have only one queen.

Why Cats Lack a Sweet Tooth

Do cats prefer sardines or sweets? The American Chemical Society (ACS), the world's largest scientific society, today released a new Bytesize Science video that explains why cats, unlike humans and other mammals, are indifferent to sweet flavors. Produced by the ACS Office of Public Affairs, the video is available at www.BytesizeScience.com. The video was filmed at the Monell Chemical Senses Center, an institute dedicated to research on taste, smell, and other senses. Prior to becoming Monell's Director, Gary Beauchamp, Ph.D., studied the sweet taste receptor genes of cats in the late 1970s. At the Philadelphia Zoo, he gave lions, tigers, cheetahs, and housecats two different types of water — sugar water and regular water. The cats showed no preference to the sugar water, suggesting a physiological difference between them and other mammals, such as humans, monkeys, and dogs. The video explains how scientists from the Monell Chemical Senses Center later uncovered the cause behind the cat's missing sweet tooth. In place of a functional sweet taste receptor gene, they discovered that cats have a pseudogene, or a broken gene, that makes them unable to detect sweet tastes. [Press release] [Monell video]