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Archive - 2014

October 4th

Viral Infection in Utero May Trigger Type 1 Diabetes; Seasonality and Winter Epidemics Seem to Be Factors

The incidence of type 1 childhood diabetes has been increasing rapidly worldwide. If blood sugar levels aren't well-controlled, juvenile diabetes can affect nearly every organ of a child's body. And while long-term complications of the disease develop gradually, they may become disabling and even life-threatening. The exact cause of juvenile diabetes has eluded scientists, but a new study from Tel Aviv University (TAU) in Israel suggests a likely pre-birth trigge. In an article published in the June 2014 issue of Diabetic Medicine, Professor Zvi Laron, Professor Emeritus of Pediatric Endocrinology at TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Director of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit at Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, and Head of the WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Diabetes in Youth, puts forth evidence that the autoimmune disease is initiated in utero. According to the research, conducted in collaboration with an international team of researchers, women who contract a viral infection during pregnancy transmit viruses to their genetically susceptible fetuses, sparking the development of type 1 diabetes. Professor Laron is internationally known for the discovery of the Laron Syndrome, also known as Laron-Type Dwarfism, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an insensitivity to growth hormone. "We knew that type 1 diabetes was associated with other autoimmune diseases like Hashimoto thyroiditis, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis, so we investigated the seasonality of birth months for these respective diseases in Israel and other countries," said Professor Laron. "We found that the seasonality of the birth of children who went on to develop these diseases did indeed differ from that of the general public.

RCas9 Is a Programmable RNA Editing Tool, New Nature Article Says

A powerful scientific tool for editing the DNA instructions in a genome can now also be applied to RNA, the molecule that translates DNA’s genetic instructions into the production of proteins. A team of researchers with Berkeley Lab and the University of California (UC) Berkeley has demonstrated a means by which the CRISPR/Cas9 protein complex can be programmed to recognize and cleave RNA at sequence-specific target sites. This finding has the potential to transform the study of RNA function by paving the way for direct RNA transcript detection, analysis, and manipulation. Led by Dr. Jennifer Doudna (photo), biochemist and a leading authority on the CRISPR/Cas9 complex, the Berkeley team showed how the Cas9 enzyme can work with short DNA sequences known as “PAM,” for protospacer adjacent motif, to identify and bind with specific sites of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). The team is designating this RNA-targeting CRISPR/Cas9 complex as RCas9. “Using specially designed PAM-presenting oligonucleotides, or PAMmers, RCas9 can be specifically directed to bind or cut RNA targets while avoiding corresponding DNA sequences, or it can be used to isolate specific endogenous messenger RNA from cells,” says Dr. Doudna, who holds joint appointments with Berkeley Lab’s Physical Biosciences Division and UC Berkeley’s Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Department of Chemistry, and is also an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI).

Review Questions Advisability of Aggressive Treatment with High Doses and Long Duration to Stem Emergence & Spread of Resistant Pathogens

In response to the rise of drug-resistant pathogens, doctors are routinely cautioned against overprescribing antimicrobials. But when a patient has a confirmed bacterial infection, the advice is to treat aggressively to quash the infection before the bacteria can develop resistance. A new study questions the accepted wisdom that aggressive treatment with high drug dosages and long durations is always the best way to stem the emergence and spread of resistant pathogens. The review of nearly 70 studies of antimicrobial resistance, which was authored by researchers at Princeton and other leading institutions, and published online in an open-access article on September 24, 2014 in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, reveals the lack of evidence behind the practice of aggressive treatment in many cases. The article was entitled, “The Path of Least Resistance: Aggressive or Moderate Treatment?” "We found that while there are many studies that test for resistance emergence between different drug regimens, surprisingly few have looked at the topic of how varying drug dosage might affect the emergence and spread of resistance," said Ruthie Birger, a Princeton graduate student who works with Dr. C. Jessica Metcalf, an assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and public affairs at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School, and Dr. Bryan Grenfell, the Kathryn Briger and Sarah Fenton Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Public Affairs in Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School. Birger, Drs. Metcalf and Grenfell coauthored the paper with colleagues from 16 universities. "We are a long way from having the evidence for the best treatment decisions with respect to resistance for a range of diseases," Dr. Birger said.

October 3rd

NIH Announces $46 Million Initial Funding of BRAIN Initiative

On September 30, 2014, The National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced its first wave of investments totaling $46 million in fiscal year 2014 funds to support the goals of the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. More than 100 investigators in 15 states and several countries will work to develop new tools and technologies to understand neural circuit function and capture a dynamic view of the brain in action. These new tools and this deeper understanding will ultimately catalyze new treatments and cures for devastating brain disorders and diseases that are estimated by the World Health Organization to affect more than one billion people worldwide. “The human brain is the most complicated biological structure in the known universe. We’ve only just scratched the surface in understanding how it works — or, unfortunately, doesn’t quite work when disorders and disease occur,” said NIH Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. “There’s a big gap between what we want to do in brain research and the technologies available to make exploration possible. These initial awards are part of a 12-year scientific plan focused on developing the tools and technologies needed to make the next leap in understanding the brain. This is just the beginning of an ambitious journey and we’re excited about the possibilities.” Creating a wearable scanner to image the human brain in motion, using lasers to guide nerve cell firing, recording the entire nervous system in action, stimulating specific circuits with radio waves, and identifying complex circuits with DNA barcodes are among the 58 projects announced today.

Complex Three-Way Interaction between the Non-Integrin Laminin Receptor, Galectin-3, and Life-Threatening Neisseria meningitides

Previously undiscovered secrets of how human cells interact with a bacterium which causes a serious human disease have been revealed in new research by microbiologists at The University of Nottingham. The scientists at the University’s Centre for Biomolecular Sciences have shed new light on how two proteins found on many human cells are targeted by the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis (image) which can cause life-threatening meningitis and septicemia. The proteins, laminin receptor 1 (LAMR1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are found in and on the surface of many human cells. Previous research has shown that they play diverse roles in a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. For example, the LAMR1 is a key receptor targeted by disease-causing pathogens and their toxins and is also a receptor for the spread of cancer around the body and for the development of Alzheimer’s. Using the latest bimolecular fluorescence and confocal imaging techniques, the researchers have shown that these two separate proteins can form pairs made up of two similar molecules (homodimers) or one of each molecule (heterodimers) which are targeted by Neisseria meningitidis. They have also identified critical components which cause the formation of these pairs of molecules. These new mechanistic insights into the three-way relationship between proteins and bacterial pathogens could have significant implications in the fields of infection, vaccination, and cancer biology. Associate Professor of Microbiology, Dr. Karl Wooldridge, said: “We have shown evidence for the self and mutual association of these two important proteins and their distinctive surface distribution on the human cell. We’ve also demonstrated that they are targeted by the serious human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis.

October 2nd

Advanced LC-MS 'Omics Analysis Software for Proteomics Applications Is More Rapid and Reliable Than Ever, Waters Claims

On June 16, 2014, Waters Corporation (NYSE:WAT) unveiled Progenesis® QI for proteomics Version 2.0, the latest advance in proteomics data analysis software, which the company believes enables more rapid and reliable quantification and identification of differentially changing proteins in laboratory samples than ever before. The release of Progenesis QI for proteomics Version 2.0 expands Waters’® suite of focused, world-leading informatics packages for 'omics data analysis. The new features of Progenesis QI for proteomics Version 2.0 include Pathway Analysis, which aids the biological understanding of observed MS data; QC Metrics, which assesses LC-MS data quality to facilitate exclusion of sub-optimal measurements; and Process Automation, which eliminates the need to program repetitive steps to make analysis even faster. The new software now allows user-selectable HiN quantification of proteins, along with full HiN functionality for 2D-LC experiments. Progenesis QI for proteomics Version 2.0 takes ‘omics-based data analysis to the next level by enabling users to rapidly quantify and identify differences between protein samples. It provides an easy-to-learn, intuitive process based on how researchers work, a flexible workflow, and a highly visual interface to give the user confidence in their data. “Progenesis QI for proteomics Version 2.0 gives users more control and functionality than ever before. It solves a major bottleneck for biological research,” said Dr. Rohit Khanna, Vice President of Worldwide Marketing and Informatics for the Waters Division. “The expanded functionality has broad applications across proteomics research, health sciences, and food research.

Agilent to Collaborate with University of Toronto on Metabolomics MRM Library-Software Solution to Accelerate Cell Biology, Disease Research Usng Robust LC/MS

On September 29, 2014, Agilent Technologies, Inc. (NYSE: A) announced a collaboration with scientists at the University of Toronto's Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research to produce a comprehensive metabolomics multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) library and methodology, using Agilent's Infinity 1290 UHPLC and 6460 triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system (image). The library, coupled with Agilent's MassHunter software, will provide scientists with a robust LC/MS solution to accelerate the quantification of hundreds of metabolically important compounds for cell biology and disease research. "We are impressed with Agilent's mass spectrometry instruments and software solutions, and we look forward to working together to enable use of LC/MS metabolomics by a larger scientific audience," said Professor Adam Rosebrock, who is collaborating on this project with Dr. Amy Caudy, both principal investigators from the Donnelly Centre. "Routine metabolite quantification is an essential component for building a better understanding of how diseases such as cancer and diabetes modify metabolic pathways," said Steve Fischer, market director for Agilent's Life Science Research Division. "We are honored to work with Drs. Rosebrock and Caudy to bring this powerful solution to the scientific community and help advance research efforts in the area of quantitative metabolite measurement." When completed, this new metabolomics MRM library will be added to Agilent's existing collection of MRM libraries, which address a variety of applications including pesticides, veterinary drugs, forensics. and toxicology. Information about Agilent is available at www.agilent.com.

Earthworms, Beetles, and Other Small Soil Animals Have Major Impact on Grassland Ecosystems

When asked to describe a forest or a meadow, most people would probably begin with the plants, the species diversity, or the color of the foliage. They probably wouldn’t pay much attention to the animals living in the soil. But a new Yale-led study shows the critical importance of earthworms, beetles, and other tiny creatures to the structure of grasslands and the valuable ecosystem services they provide. During a three-year study, researchers found that removing these small animals from the soil of a replicated Scottish sheep meadow altered the plant species that grew in the ecosystem, reduced overall productivity, and produced plants that were less responsive to common agricultural management, such as fertilization. The results reflect the long-term ecological impacts of land use changes, such as the conversion of forests to agricultural land, researchers say. “We know these soil animals are important controls on processes which cause nutrients and carbon to cycle in ecosystems, but there was little evidence that human-induced loss of these animals has effects at the level of the whole ecosystem, on services such as agricultural yield,” said Dr. Mark Bradford, an Associate Professor at the Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (F&ES) and lead author of the study published online on September 22, 2014 in PNAS. “Yet that’s exactly what we found.” At a climate-controlled laboratory, the researchers assembled 16 bathtub-sized replicas of a Scottish upland grassland. Each of the models included the 10 most common plant species, but the researchers introduced earthworms, slugs, and other small creatures to only some of the systems. During the first six months, the researchers found that removing the animals did not affect plant yield or the rate of carbon dioxide loss from the system.

How Giant Clams Harness Power of the Sun; Clues for New Solar Panels and More

Evolution in extreme environments has produced life forms with amazing abilities and traits. Beneath the waves, many creatures sport iridescent structures that rival what materials scientists can make in the laboratory. A team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) and the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), has now shown how giant clams (image) these structures to thrive, operating as exceedingly efficient, living greenhouses that grow symbiotic algae as a source of food. This understanding could have implications for alternative energy research, paving the way for new types of solar panels or improved reactors for growing biofuel. The study was led by Dr. Alison Sweeney, assistant professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy in Penn's School of Arts & Sciences, and Dr. Daniel Morse, professor emeritus in UCSB's Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology and Director of its Marine Biotechnology Center. The team also includes lead author Dr. Amanda Holt, a postdoctoral researcher formerly at UCSB and now at Penn, as well as Dr. Sanaz Vahidinia of NASA's Ames Research Center and Dr. Yakir Luc Gagnon of Duke University. The work was published online on October 1, 2014 in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface. "Many mollusks, like squid, octopuses, snails, and cuttlefish," Dr. Sweeney said, "have iridescent structures, but almost all use them for camouflage or for signaling to mates. We knew giant clams weren't doing either of those things, so we wanted to know what they were using them for." While the true purpose of these iridescent structures, cells known as iridocytes, was not known, the team had a strong hypothesis. Like neighboring coral, giant clams are home to symbiotic algae that grow within their flesh.

October 1st

Promise Seen in Interleukin-Targeted Treatments for Deadly Glioblastoma Multiforme

Glioblastma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal primary brain tumors, with median survival for these patients only slightly over one year. Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), in collaboration with researchers from the City of Hope Hospital in Los Angeles, California, are looking toward novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of GBM in the form of targeted therapies against a unique receptor, the interleukin-13 receptor alpha chain variant 2 (IL13Ralpha2). In a review article published in the October 2014 issue of Neuro-Oncology, the researchers discuss various targeted therapies against IL13Ralpha2 and early successes of clinical trials with these therapies in the treatment of GBM. The article also highlights the need for future trials to improve the efficacy and toxicity profiles of targeted therapies in this field. Targeted therapies, which are drugs that interfere with specific molecules involved in cancer growth, have been successfully used in the treatment of many cancers, including breast and blood cancers. Successful targets for therapies are specific to tumor cells and not found on normal cells. Selectively expressed on GBM and absent on surrounding brain tissue, the interleukin-13 receptor alpha chain variant 2 (IL13Ralpha2) was identified as a potential target for therapy for GBM two decades ago. IL13Ralpha2 also plays an important role in the growth of tumors. In normal physiologic conditions, IL-13 binds to the receptor IL13Ralpha1 and helps regulate immune responses. In cancer cells, IL-13 binds to the receptor IL13Ralpha2 and, through a series of steps, prevents cancer cells from undergoing normal cell death. Increased expression of IL13Ralpha2 promotes the progression of GBM. Since its discovery, IL13Ralpha2 has provided a target for therapies in GBM.