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Archive - Nov 4, 2017

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Three-Step, Pre-Targeted Radioimmunotherapy Approach to Treating Colorectal Cancer Leads to Complete Cure in Mouse Model

Researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City and Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston have developed a new, three-step system that uses nuclear medicine to target and eliminate colorectal cancer. In this study in a mouse model, researchers achieved a 100-percent cure rate--without any treatment-related toxic effects. The study is reported in the November 2017 featured article (image) in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. The article is titled “Curative Multicycle Radioimmunotherapy Monitored by Quantitative SPECT/CT-Based Theranostics, Using Bispecific Antibody Pretargeting Strategy In Colorectal Cancer." Until now, radioimmunotherapy (targeted therapy) of solid tumors using antibody-targeted radionuclides has had limited therapeutic success. "This research is novel because of the benchmarks reached by the treatment regimen, in terms of curative tumor doses, with non-toxic secondary radiation to the body's normal tissues," explains Steven M. Larson, MD, and Sarah Cheal, PhD, both of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. "The success in murine tumor models comes from the unique quality of the reagents developed by our group, and the reduction to practice methodology, including a theranostic approach that can be readily transferred, we believe, to patients." Theranostics, a term derived from therapy and diagnostics, is the use of a single agent to both diagnose and treat disease. The theranostic agent first finds the cancer cells, then destroys them, leaving healthy cells unharmed--minimizing side effects and improving quality of life for patients.

Tolvaptan Slows Progression of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Disease (ADPKD) in Later-stage Disease in Phase 3 Trial; Treatment May Delay Need for Dialysis or Kidney Transplant

A phase 3 trial studying the effects of the vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan has found that the drug slowed the rate of decline in kidney function in patients with later stages of the most common form of polycystic kidney disease, a condition with no cure. The results were published online today (November 4, 2017) in the New England Journal of Medicine. The article is titled “Tolvaptan in Later-Stage Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease.” Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited condition that affects 1 in every 500 to 1,000 individuals in the U.S. This disease is found in all races and sexes. ADPDK, which is the fourth most common cause of end-stage kidney disease, ultimately requires dialysis or kidney transplant in many cases. The disease causes a slow but relentless growth of cysts that damage the kidneys. In addition to negatively affecting quality of life, the condition also causes hypertension and painful complications. The cysts, which can damage kidneys with their size, can also develop in other organs, especially the liver. Approximately half of individuals with ADPKD will eventually require dialysis or kidney transplant by age 60. The results of the trial demonstrated tolvaptan's ability to intervene in a way that slows kidney function decline in this population. Vasopressin promotes kidney-cyst cell proliferation and fluid secretion by means of up-regulation of adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). The suppression of vasopressin production, release, or action by means of hydration, V2-receptor blockade, or genetic mutation has previously been shown to reduce cyst burden, protect kidney function, and prolong survival in rodent models.