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Archive - May 28, 2018

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Homeless Populations at High Risk to Develop Cardiovascular Disease; Review Calls for Clinicians to Adjust Practices to Meet Needs of This Vulnerable Population

Among homeless individuals, cardiovascular disease remains one of the major causes of death due to challenges in predicting initial risk, limited access to health care, and difficulties in long-term management, according to a review published online on May 28, 2018 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. In the U.S., roughly 550,000 people are homeless on any given night, and an estimated 2.3 million to 3.5 million people experience homelessness over the course of a year. The median age of the homeless population is 50 years, approximately 60 percent are male and 39 percent are African-American. These demographic groups experience high cardiovascular disease mortality rates, highlighting the need for proper prevention and treatment. While the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among homeless individuals is similar to that of the general population, it often goes untreated, leading to worse blood pressure and blood sugar control. Smoking remains the largest contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality in homeless populations, with an estimated 60 percent of ischemic heart disease deaths attributable to tobacco. Although, according to the review, most homeless individuals have a desire to quit smoking, quit rates are only one-fifth the national average. Homeless populations are more likely to drink heavily and have a history of cocaine use, which have been linked to congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, heart attack, and sudden cardiac death. Twenty-five percent of homeless people have a chronic mental illness, contributing to cardiovascular disease risk and complicating diagnoses by impacting motivation to seek care.

Young Mongooses Learn Life-Long Habits from Role Models Not Their Parents

Young mongooses learn life-long habits from role models rather than inheriting them from genetic parents, new research shows. Banded mongooses live in social groups where pups are consistently cared for one-to-one by a single adult known as an "escort" - not their mother or father. The young mongooses develop "niche" diets and, by studying these diets, University of Exeter researchers showed that pups inherit the behavior of their escort, rather than parents. The findings offer a fascinating insight into one of the great puzzles of evolution - how diversity persists rather than disappearing with passing generations. "It was a big surprise to discover that foraging behavior learned in the first three months of life lasts a lifetime," said Professor Michael Cant, of the Centre for Ecology and Conservation on the University of Exeter's Penryn Campus in Cornwall. "This is pretty remarkable, because we have no evidence that pups and escorts preferentially hang out together after pups become independent. "Cultural inheritance, the transmission of socially learned information across generations, is a huge influence on human behavior: we behave the way we do, not just because of our genes, but also because of what we learn from parents, teachers and cultural role models. "It is less well appreciated that cultural inheritance is a major force shaping behavior in a wide range of non-human animals, from insects to apes - and mongooses." To explore the influence of escorts on eating habits, the researchers chemically analyzed the whiskers of individual mongooses. The findings help explain how diverse behavior persists in nature. Early critics of Darwin's theory of natural selection argued that, if his theory was correct, the result should be the erosion of the very variation he suggested as the engine of evolution.