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Archive - Jun 13, 2019

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Vagus Nerve Electro-Stimulation Reduces Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms in Pilot Study; May Also Be Effective Against Other Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

The results of a pilot study presented (abstract number: LB0009) on June 14, 2019, at the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology (EULAR 2019) (https://www.congress.eular.org/) June 12-15 in Madrid, Spain, suggest that electro stimulation of one of the nerves connecting the brain to the body (the vagus nerve) could provide a novel treatment approach for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The abstract (http://scientific.sparx-ip.net/archiveeular/?c=a&searchfor=LB0009&view=1...) is titled “First-in-Human Study of Novel Implanted Vagus Nerve Stimulation Device to Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis,” "This is a really exciting development. For many patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, current treatments don't work, or aren't tolerated," said Professor Thomas Dörner, Chairperson of the Scientific Programme Committee, EULAR 2019. "These results open the door to a novel approach to treating not only rheumatoid arthritis, but other chronic inflammatory diseases. This is certainly an area for further study." The vagus nerve is the longest and the most complex of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves that originate from the brain. The name “vagus” comes from the latin word for “wandering.” This is because the vagus nerve “wanders” from the brain into the organs of the neck, chest and abdomen. Recent advances in neuroscience and immunology have mapped circuits in the brain that regulate immune responses. In one of the circuits, i.e., the “inflammatory reflex,” signals are transmitted in the vagus nerve that inhibit the production of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), an inflammatory molecule that is a major therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis.

Mouse Study Shows That Existing Drugs That Inhibit the TRF1 Telomere Protein May Be Effective in Glioblastoma Treatment; Synergistic Therapeutic Effect Seen with Combinations of the TRF1 Inhibitors

Usually, scientists study the molecular biology of cancer to find new treatments, but sometimes, it is the other way round: when trying to find new treatments, scientists find key information on cancer biology. The researchers from the Telomeres and Telomerase Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) in Madrid, Spain, have identified new drug combinations that prevent the development of therapy resistance in mice with glioblastoma, the most malignant brain tumor. The scientists also found an unexpected link between the RAS pathway, which is involved in numerous types of cancer, and telomere maintenance. This finding, which could be used in new lines of research, will be published in the medical journal EMBO Molecular Medicine. The open-acccess article is titled “Multiple Cancer Pathways Regulate Telomere Protection.” "We had a twofold result in our study," says Maria A. Blasco, PhD, Head of the Telomeres and Telomerase Group at CNIO, and CNIO Director. "We were looking for approved drugs that could block a new target, and we found them. In the process, we also found that some molecular pathways that have a role in cancer development also participate in the regulation of telomere maintenance. This is an interesting aspect of cancer biology that was unknown before." Telomeres are protective structures at the ends of chromosomes. The Telomeres and Telomerase Group at CNIO found that attacking the telomeres in cancer cells can be an effective strategy to stop cancer growth. Specifically, the researchers in this Group found that inhibiting the telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 (TRF1) telomere protein (image) impairs tumor progression in human and murine glioblastoma models.