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Archive - Jan 14, 2020


Exosomes Promote Remarkable Recovery in Stroke

It’s been almost a quarter century since the first drug was approved for stroke. But what’s even more striking is that only a single drug remains approved today. In an open-access article published on December 6, 2019, in Translational Stroke Research, animal scientists, funded by the NIH, present brain-imaging data for a new stroke treatment that supported full recovery in swine, modeled with the same pattern of neurodegeneration as seen in humans with severe stroke. The open-access article is titled “Neural Stem Cell Extracellular Vesicles Disrupt Midline Shift Predictive Outcomes in Porcine Ischemic Stroke Model. “It was eye-opening and unexpected that you would see such a benefit after having had such a severe stroke,” said Steven Stice, PhD, Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar and D.W. Brooks Distinguished Professor in the University of Georgia’s (UGA’s) College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Dr. Stice is also Chief Science Officer for ArunA Biomedical Inc., and, prior to joining UGA, he was the co-founder of Advanced Cell Technology and served as both CSO and CEO of that company. “Perhaps the most formidable discovery was that one could recover and do so well after the exosome treatment.” Dr. Stice and his colleagues at UGA’s Regenerative Bioscience Center (RBC) report the first observational evidence during a midline shift—when the brain is being pushed to one side— to suggest that a minimally invasive and non-operative exosome treatment can now influence the repair and damage that follow a severe stroke. Exosomes are considered to be powerful mediators of long-distance cell-to-cell communication that can change the behavior of tumor and neighboring cells. The results of the study echo findings from other recent RBC studies using the same licensed exosome technology.

Bacteria As Artists; Surprising Beauty Found in Mixed Bacterial Cultures; Together, E. coli and A. baylyi Form Intricate Flower Patterns Under the Microscope; Non-Motile E. coli Hitching Ride on Motile A. baylyi Is Basis for "Artistic Beauty"

Microbial communities inhabit every ecosystem on Earth, from soil to rivers to the human gut. While monoclonal cultures often exist in labs, in the real world, many different microbial species inhabit the same space. Researchers at the University of California (UC) San Diego have discovered that when certain microbes pair up, stunning floral patterns emerge (see photo here and below). In a paper published online on January 14 in eLife, a team of researchers at UC San Diego's BioCircuits Institute (BCI) and Department of Physics, led by Research Scientist and BCI Associate Director Lev Tsimring, PhD, reports that when non-motile E. coli (Escherichia coli) are placed on an agar surface together with motile A. baylyi (Acinetobacter baylyi), the E. coli "catch a wave" at the front of the expanding A. baylyi colony. The agar provided food for the bacteria and also a surface on which E. coli couldn't easily move (making it non-motile). A. baylyi, on the other hand, can crawl readily across the agar using microscopic legs called pili. Thus, a droplet of pure E. coli would barely spread over a 24-hour period, while a droplet of pure A. baylyi would cover the entire area of the petri dish. Yet when the E. coli and A. baylyi were mixed together in the initial droplet, both strains flourished and spread across the whole area as the non-motile E. coli hitched a ride on the highly mobile A. baylyi. However, what most surprised researchers were intricate flower-like patterns that emerged in the growing colony over a 24-hour period.The open-access eLife article is titled “Flower-like patterns in multi-species bacterial colonies.