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Epigenetic Changes Linked to Type 2 Diabetes

A research group at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden has shown that a key gene (PGC-1alpha) in the muscle cells of type 2 diabetics is chemically modified through DNA methylation. The scientists found that the gene was hypermethylated and had reduced expression in muscle cells taken from patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes. PGC-1alpha controls other genes that regulate the metabolism of glucose by the cell. DNA methylation is a form of epigenetic regulation, a process involving chemical modifications that are imposed externally on genes and that alter their activity without any change to the underlying DNA sequence. "This type of epigenetic modification might be the link that explains how environmental factors have a long-term influence on the development of type 2 diabetes," said Dr. Juleen Zierath, who led the study. "It remains to be seen whether the DNA methylation of this gene can be affected by, say, dietary factors." This work was published in the September 2 edition of Cell Metabolism. [Press release] [Cell Metabolism abstract]