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New Treatment Significantly Improves Survival in Women Newly Diagnosed with Advanced Ovarian Cancer; International Study Shows Niraparib (PARP Inhibitor) Administration After Chemotherapy Reduces Risk of Relapse or Death by Nearly 40%

An international study demonstrates that, administering niraparib after conventional chemotherapy treatment in patients newly diagnosed with advanced ovarian cancer, improves their progression-free survival, and reduces their risk of relapse or death from this disease. The primary investigator of this study is Dr. Antonio González Martín, (Co-Director of Clinica Universidad de Navarra (Spain), and president of the Spanish Ovarian Cancer Research Group (GEICO). The New England Journal of Medicine published the research online on September 28, 2019. The NEJM article is titled “Niraparib in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Advanced Ovarian Cancer.” "We evaluated in this study the benefits of using niraparib after standard treatment of ovarian cancer based on chemotherapy after surgery. With this new therapeutic approach, we have observed a significant improvement in patient progression-free survival and a reduction of almost 40% of their risk of relapse,”says Dr. González Martín, first author of the article. Ovarian cancer is diagnosed every year in approximately 205,000 women worldwide, and is the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women in Europe. It is usually diagnosed between 45 and 75 years, although there is a significant number of patients from 30 years. It is the gynecological tumor that causes more deaths because most patients are diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease, given the absence of early diagnostic techniques. In turn, up to 80% of those affected by advanced ovarian cancer relapse after treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. "This research arises from the need to look for new strategies and alternative therapies that increase the survival of patients with this disease," says an expert.

Interim Results of Phase 3 Trial Show Immune Therapy Eliminates Tumor Cells in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Combination of Anti-PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody Pembrolizumab Plus Chemotherapy Could Become A Standard of Care If Approved, Expert Says

Immune therapy added to chemotherapy improves pathological complete response in patients with early triple-negative breast cancer, according to late-breaking interim results from the KEYNOTE-522 trial presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (EMSO) Congress 2019 in Barcelona, Spain (https://www.esmo.org/Conferences/ESMO-Congress-2019) (September 27-October 1). Interim results from the KEYNOTE-522 trial interim were presented by study first author Professor Peter Schmid, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, UK, during the Presidential Symposium II on September 29, 2019, and published in Annals of Oncology, Volume 30, Supplement 5, October 2019. The title of the results presentation was “LBA8_PR 'KEYNOTE-522: Phase 3 Study of Pembrolizumab (Pembro) + Chemotherapy (Chemo) vs Placebo (Pbo) + Chemo As Neoadjuvant Treatment, Followed by Pembro vs Pbo As Adjuvant Treatment for Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC).” The interim results from the study, which is the first phase III trial of immunotherapy in early breast cancer, also indicated an improvement in event-free survival. "The data suggest that the improved pathological complete response with pembrolizumab translates into fewer recurrences," said Professor Schmid. Triple-negative breast cancer is the most aggressive sub-type of breast cancer and more often affects young women. Patients typically receive chemotherapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor. This provides the best chance of pathological complete response, meaning no cancerous cells remaining on the resected tumor. Women with a pathological complete response have an 85-90% likelihood of being cured, while those with residual viable tumor tissue have a 40-50% probability of recurrence, which often occurs within three years.

Low-Cost Electronic Device May Reverse Early Stages of Pattern Baldness; Small, Wearable Device “Wakes Up” Dormant Hair Follicles, Restores Hair Growth; Device Developed by Engineers at UW-Madison

Reversing baldness could someday be as easy as wearing a hat, thanks to a noninvasive, low-cost hair-growth-stimulating technology developed by engineers at the University of Wisconsin (UW)–Madison. “I think this will be a very practical solution to hair regeneration,” says Xudong Wang, PhD, a Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Wisconsin (UW)–Madison. Dr. Wang and colleagues published a description of the technology in the journal ACS Nano on September 10, 2019. The article is titled “Self-Activated Electrical Stimulation for Effective Hair Regeneration via a Wearable Omnidirectional Pulse Generator. Based on devices that gather energy from a body’s day-to-day motion, the hair-growth technology stimulates the skin with gentle, low-frequency electric pulses, which coax dormant follicles to reactivate hair production. The devices don’t cause hair follicles to sprout anew in smooth skin. Instead, they reactivate hair-producing structures that have gone dormant. That means they could be used as an intervention for people in the early stages of pattern baldness, but they wouldn’t bestow cascading tresses to someone who has been completely bald for several years. Because the devices are powered by the movement of the wearer, they don’t require a bulky battery pack or complicated electronics. In fact, they’re so low-profile that they could be discreetly worn underneath the crown of an everyday baseball cap. Dr. Wang is a world expert in the design and creation of energy-harvesting devices. He has pioneered electric bandages that stimulate wound-healing and a weight-loss implant that uses gentle electricity to trick the stomach into feeling full.

NCI Awards $1.86 Million Two-Year Contract to Aethlon Medical for Developing Device for Isolating Exosomes; Aethlon to Collaborate with U of Pittsburgh and Mass General on Project

On September 16, 2019, Aethlon Medical, Inc. (Nasdaq: AEMD), a therapeutic technology company focused on unmet needs in global health, announced that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has awarded the Company an SBIR Phase 2 contract for Topic 359, a solicitation entitled "Technologies for Differential Isolation of Exosomes and Oncosomes." This solicitation prioritized the advancement of technologies for isolating exosomes from biofluids for applications in oncology research and clinical care. This contract will be funded with Federal funds from the NCI, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. 75N91019C00042. Exosomes are nanoparticles that are abundantly released from cancer cells and carry the complement of a tumor's genetic and protein cargo, making them important targets for non-invasive liquid biopsies in cancer. Aethlon is actively developing assays in this area through its majority-owned subsidiary, Exosome Sciences, Inc. However, there remains a need for high-throughput and selective technologies which isolate exosomes from various bodily fluids that could be adopted in clinical workflows. A technology that resolves the bottleneck in methods for obtaining pure populations of exosomes is anticipated to have wide applicability to be paired with downstream genomic sequencing, proteomic profiling tests, and, potentially, for the development of therapeutic products.

Southern California’s Hoag Hospital to Study Unique Early Disease Markers (Exosomes) for Cancer Detection and Management in Those at High Genetic Risk of Cancer; Hospital Will Collaborate with Exosome Sciences and Aethlon Medical

On Septembr 24, 2019, Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian, in Orange County, California, announced the start of a research study to identify and characterize potential early disease markers for cancer diagnostics, cancer progression, and treatment resistance. In partnership with Exosome Sciences (https://www.exosomesciences.com/, a subsidiary of Aethlon Medical, Inc. (Nasdaq: AEMD) (https://www.aethlonmedical.com/), scientists will study exosomes in cancer patients and individuals at high genetic risk for cancer (https://www.hoag.org/specialties-services/cancer/conditions/hereditary-c...). Exosomes are nanoparticles that are abundantly released from cancer cells and can provide a snapshot of a tumor’s genetic and protein cargo, making them important targets for non-invasive liquid biopsies in cancer. “Liquid biopsies have the potential to facilitate the early detection of cancer and the assessment of the efficacy of potential treatments in real time. This may prove to be a critical tool in our ongoing efforts to help patients with cancer,” said Michael Demeure, MD, Program Director of Precision Medicine at Hoag (https://www.hoag.org/specialties-services/cancer/treatments-services/pre...) and the principal investigator on the study at Hoag. “Hoag has an active Hereditary Cancer Program (https://www.hoag.org/specialties-services/cancer/conditions/hereditary-c...) that supports a number of individuals and families at high risk of developing cancer and is committed to achieving breakthroughs in the detection of cancer at its earliest possible and most treatable stage.” “Liquid biopsies are a rapidly developing field of non-invasive tests for patients with and at risk for cancer,” said Timothy Rodell, MD, CEO of Exosome Sciences and Aethlon Medical, Inc.

UK Launches Project to Conduct Whole-Genome Sequencing of 500,000 Genomes Accumulated in UK BioBank; Work May Provide Increased Understanding of Diseases That May Fuel Development of New Treatments and Enable Possible Cures

A new ground-breaking project in the fight against life-threatening illnesses was launched on September 11, 2019 by the UK. The £200 million (~250 million) whole-genome sequencing project is being created, forming a partnership of pharmaceutical firms and health experts that will examine and sequence the genetic code of approximately 500,000 volunteers at the UK Biobank, based in Stockport, UK. UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said: “Britain has a proud history of putting itself at the heart of international collaboration and discovery. Over 60 years ago, we saw the discovery of DNA in Cambridge by a team of international researchers and today we are going even further. Now, we are bringing together experts from around the globe to work in the UK on the world’s largest genetics research project, set to help us better treat life-threatening illnesses and ultimately save lives. Breakthroughs of this kind wouldn’t be possible without being open to the brightest and the best from across the globe to study and work in the UK. That’s why we’re unveiling a new route for international students to unlock their potential and start their careers in the UK.” Genomics research has the potential to create a genuinely predictive, more personalized healthcare system and the UK has a clear desire to seize the opportunities that research in this area offers, which is why the government has committed to carrying out five million analyses of DNA by 2024. The new project aims to improve health through genetic research, improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of a wide range of serious and life-threatening illnesses including cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, arthritis, and dementia.

Cause of Rare, Fatal Disorder (Krabbe Disease) in Young Children Pinpointed; Proof-of-Concept Drug Therapy Benefits Mouse Model of Disease

Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis appear to have solved a decades-long mystery regarding the precise biochemical pathway leading to a fatal genetic disorder in children that results in seizures, developmental regression and death, usually around age 3. Studying a mouse model with the same human illness -- called Krabbe disease -- the researchers also identified a possible therapeutic strategy. The research was published online on September 16, 2019 in PNAS. The article is titled “Genetic Ablation of Acid Ceramidase In Krabbe Disease Confirms the Psychosine Hypothesis and Identifies a New Therapeutic Target.” Patients with infantile globoid cell leukodystrophy, also known as Krabbe disease, gradually lose the protective covering that insulates axons, the wiring of the nervous system. The rare condition -- affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 births -- is typically diagnosed before age 1 and progresses rapidly. Scientists have long suspected that nerve insulation is destroyed in this disorder because of a buildup of a toxic compound called psychosine. Patients with the inherited disorder are missing an important protein involved in breaking down psychosine. But the source of psychosine in Krabbe disease has been elusive, making the problem impossible to correct. "Krabbe disease in infancy is invariably fatal," said senior author Mark S. Sands, PhD, a Professor of Medicine. "It's a heartbreaking neurodegenerative disease first described more than a century ago, but we still have no effective treatments. For almost 50 years, we have assumed the psychosine hypothesis was correct -- that a toxic buildup of psychosine is the cause of all the problems. But we've never been able to prove it." Surprisingly, Dr.

Acute Chikungunya Infection Studied at Molecular Level in Brazilian Patients; Using Systems Biology Approach, Researchers Identify Several Genes That Can Be Explored As Therapeutic Targets and As Biomarkers of Predispositiont to Chronic Joint Pain

Computational tools applied to biology are revolutionizing the study of what happens inside cells during an infection, helping scientists to understand disease mechanisms and contributing to the identification of potential therapeutic targets. An example is a study published online on June 18, 2019 in PLOS Pathogens describing how Brazilian researchers analyzed blood cells from patients infected with chikungunya virus (image). With the aid of techniques such as complex network analysis, artificial intelligence, and machine learning, the group identified gene signatures associated with the disease - sets of genes whose expression is altered by interaction with the virus. They then investigated the role played in cells by the involved genes and determined the importance of these genes to efforts to combat the virus. The open-access article is titled “Systems Analysis of Subjects Acutely Infected with the Chikungunya Virus.” Conducted in Brazil, the research was supported by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). The principal investigator was Helder Nakaya, PhD, a professor at the University of São Paulo's School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (FCF-USP). Researchers at the same university's Biomedical Science Institute (ICB-USP) and its Ribeirão Preto Medical School (FMRP-USP), as well as colleagues at Butantan Institute and the Public Health Central Laboratory of Sergipe, among others, also contributed. "We also identified a set of genes that show during the acute phase whether the patient is likely to develop chronic arthralgia [joint pain and inflammation], a relatively common condition in people infected with chikungunya. However, this finding has yet to be confirmed by future research based on a larger number of samples," Dr. Nakaya said.

Multiple Disease Agents Present in Many Ticks

In a study published online in mBio, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology, Jorge Benach, PhD, and Rafal Tokarz, PhD, and their co-authors at Stony Brook University and Columbia University respectivly, reported on the prevalence of multiple agents capable of causing human disease that are present in three species of ticks in Long Island, New York. The open-acess article is titled “ Polymicrobial Nature of Tick-Borne Diseases.” Tick-borne diseases have become a worldwide threat to public health. In the United States, cases more than doubled, from 22,000 in 2004 to more than 48,000 in 2016, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Tick-borne diseases range from subclinical to fatal infections with disproportionate incidence in children or the elderly. Moreover, some infections can also be transmitted by blood transfusions and cause severe disease in patients with underlying disorders. While public attention has focused on Lyme disease, in recent years, scientists have uncovered evidence that ticks can carry several different pathogens capable of several different tick-borne diseases, sometimes in a single tick. In the new study, researchers collected ticks from multiple locations throughout Suffolk county in the central and eastern part of Long Island, where seven diseases caused by microbes transmitted by ticks are present. In total, they scientists examined 1,633 individual ticks for 12 separate microbes. They found that more than half of the Ixodes (deer ticks) (image) were infected with the Lyme disease agent, followed by infections with the agents of babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Importantly, nearly one-quarter of these ticks are infected with more than one agent, resulting in the possibility of simultaneous transmission from a single tick bite.

Vitamin E Found to Prevent Muscle Damage After Heart Attack

Heart attack is a leading cause of death worldwide and new treatment strategies are highly sought after. Unfortunately, lasting damage to the heart muscle is not uncommon following such an event. Published in the September 2019 issue of Redox Biology, a pre-clinical study sheds new light on the potential of the acute therapy with α-TOH (vitamin E) in patients presenting with heart attack, and may ultimately offer an effective low-cost treatment. "One of the most effective anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agents is vitamin E and its derivatives," said Professor Karlheinz Peter, the Baker Institute's (Melbourne, Australia) Deputy Director, Basic and Translational Science and senior author of the study. The open-access article is titled “α-Tocopherol Preserves Cardiac Function by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury "Our treatment regimen reflects clinical conditions, where patients could receive their first application of vitamin E in the ambulance or upon their arrival in the emergency department, before reopening and stenting the blocked vessel and the following days in hospital before discharge. Our next step is to test an already approved formulation of Vitamin E in patients admitted with a heart attack," said Professor Peter. "We plan to prove that heart function is preserved using sensitive magnetic resonance imaging. Thereby, we hope to establish an inexpensive and effective therapy for patients with heart attack. "Nutritional scientist and vitamin specialist from Jena University in Germany, Dr.

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